S letter


Healing (in architecture returning to its original state). It is a measure, which renews the injured special parts of a building or area or their reduced functions into reference conditions or at least gets close to it. Most commonly word sanation is used when interfering into a building because of necessity, for example appliance of hydroisolation, sanation of the walls etc.

Scientific record

The output of research, investigation and conservation activities consisting of research/investigation records provided by different conservation professionals involved. After going through a process of interpretation and selection, the correlation of all relevant research/investigation records provides a complete picture of the current scientific knowledge about a cultural heritage place.

Socialist architecture (1945 – 1980)

The socialist transformation of the way of life did require a qualitative change in the concept of settlement on the basis of an organic interaction of all three elements of the city: industry, housing and social institutions. The functional aspects of the architecture did therefore undergo a corresponding change. It is a special architectural style, well known in former socialist countries, where mass collective building was built to solve the housing problem and the problem of demolished buildings in WW2. Nonetheless also to show the rest of the world about the possibility of nation collaboration.


Refers to a physical location and its substances, and a space becomes a place when it gets assigned with a meaning and social significance by an individual.


An object, word, or action that stands for something else with no natural relationship that is culturally defined. Everything one does throughout their life is based and organised through cultural symbolism. Symbolism is the physical representation of when something represents abstract ideas or concepts. Some good examples of symbols/symbolism would be objects, figures, sounds, and colours. Objects of cultural heritage are important symbols and expressions of shared values, traditions and customs.


Treatment procedures intended to maintain the integrity of cultural property and to minimise deterioration. Maintaining the fabric of a place in its existing state and retarding or slowing deterioration. Is a process of intervention which may be used as an interim measure on a severely deteriorated building or it may involve the long-term consolidation of a structure.


Norms for the respectful conservation of historic places and objects. Standards have been in use in heritage conservation for many years and are still evolving today. A standard offers guidance to good practice - an agreed way of doing something, and combines the distilled wisdom of people with expertise in their subject matter. Standards are designed for voluntary use; they offer ways to do things better. They are not legally binding, but they can be used to underpin contractual arrangements. Standards are not legally binding, but they can be used to underpin contractual arrangements. They can set down better practice in a concise way, summarising current approaches to the conservation of cultural heritage collections and buildings, for the benefit both of professional conservators and of those employing, commissioning, or working alongside them.


Distinctive manner which permits the grouping of works into related categories and any distinctive, and therefore recognizable, way in which an act is performed, or an artefact made or ought to be performed and made. It refers to the visual appearance of a work of art that relates it to other works by the same artist or one from the same period, training, location, "school", art movement or archaeological culture.

Substitute materials

Materials used to replace imitate historic materials, which should match the appearance and physical properties of historic materials. Most commonly nNewer and contemporary (better) materials are sometimes used in sanation or reconstruction of a cultural heritage, since with time materials and techniques also developed with time.


Forms of progress that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Cultural sustainability as it relates to sustainable development (or to sustainability), has to do with maintaining cultural beliefs, cultural practices, heritage conservation, culture as its own entity, and the question of whether or not any given culture will exist in the future.

Sustainable development

Harmonised progress of several elements in common activities in practise or in cultural habits for the best circumstances of their work. Use of an area within its capacity to sustain its cultural or natural significance and ensure that the benefits of the use to present generations do not diminish the potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations. Sustainable development is in accordance with sustainable and respectful planning that takes into consideration heritage sites, environment, culture and other aspects.

Sustainable / green building

Refers to the structure, and the processes related to the structure, that’s environmentally responsible and energy efficient. Environmental factors are taken into account from the initial designs to the construction, as well as the operation and maintenance of a building, to any renovation or demolition.


Reconnaissance of an area to locate archaeological sites and acquire a preliminary idea of their potential. This evaluation generally is carried out by collecting surface samples and by digging test pits and survey trenches. The term survey also means the systematic division of the archaeological site into grids with unique identification for each grid (an operation called grid layout).

Last modified: Monday, 23 October 2023, 5:07 PM